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Page 116 of 123 ROCK products • August 2018 • 115 Aggregates Industry Almanac Safety Training employees' knowledge in this area is important because Ragain (2016) found employees have a desire to speak up, but often choose not to intervene because they are not equipped to do so effectively. From what was learned from employees during annual refresher trainings and with NIOSH safety climate research, it seems important to begin the process of growing a strong culture sooner rather than later. Particularly, employees in high-risk industries should feel supported and encouraged to speak up when they see an unsafe situation or unsafe co-worker behavior. As a starting point, companies should consider conduct- ing an evaluation of their safety culture, policies and best practices to see if they need to be updated or changed to allow employees to feel more comfortable speaking up if they observe an unsafe situation. Only when employees feel supported will they step up and say or do something if they observe an unsafe situation or behavior. If employees know they can approach their co-workers or supervisors and freely discuss safety concerns, without fear of retaliation or losing their jobs, positive changes in the culture and proactivity in the workplace will begin. In addition to evaluating their safety culture, policies, best practices and skills of their leaders, companies must take time to evaluate how they educate employees about the need, intent and goals of all safety initiatives in which they expect their employees to participate. This educational process should include not letting our "ego" get in the way; being humble, stepping up and becoming a leader when circum- stance require it. Too often programs or initiatives are rolled out with little or no employee education and as a result, they generate mini- mal participation or just "go by way-side." If employees are not provided with the "why" or given direction, they will not commit to following a program nor will the meet a company's expectations. As Ragain said, "We need to stop assuming that it is only a matter of motivation and start addressing the real factors that keep employees from speaking up and doing so effectively" (2016). For the past 30 years, Joe McGuire, Ph.D, has worked in the construction-aggregate production industry dealing primarily with the planning/zoning process, environmental permitting, compliance issues and educational/training, while also par- ticipating in many aggregate mine-development and permit requests at the county level, which required involvement in the public hearing process. Emily Haas, Ph.D, is an employee in the Human Factors Branch of NIOSH's Pittsburgh Mining Research Division. She studies organizational culture and risk management in areas specific to leadership in order to uncover ways to strengthen safety culture in mining workplaces. Scott Bohm is safety manager for CRH Americas Materials. He has been in the aggregates industry for more than 20 years. During that time he has held several management positions beginning in 2010 as a portable wash plant supervisor. In 2012 he accepted a safety manager position and in 2018 he was placed in a dual role of operations manager overseeing two portable plants while continuing in his role of safety manager. He has received numerous safety-related certifications and is used throughout the company to train employees including all MSHA required training. Bohm has been very active in devel- oping training materials, research and evaluation of MSHA training conducted with employees. Disclaimer The findings and conclusions in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (NIOSH). Mention of company names or products does not constitute endorsement by NIOSH. References European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2012). Leadership and occupational safety and health (OSH): An expert analysis. Edited by D. Elsler and supported by J. Flintrop. Luxembourgh: Publications office of the European Union. ISBN: 978- 92-9191-836-2. Retrieved April 17, 2018, from O'Haver, H. (2016, September 23). How 'if you see something, say something' became our national motto. The Wash- ington Post. Retrieved on April 17, 2018 from how-if-you-see-something-say-something-became-our-national-motto/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.60f18c403bd0 Ragain, P. (2016). Hardwired Inhibitions: Hidden Forces that Keep Us Silent in the Face of Disaster. ASSE Professional Develop- ment Conference and Exposition, 26-29 June, Atlanta, Georgia. American Society of Safety Engineers. Document ID ASSE-16-767. Scace, J. (2017, July 14). Why don't workers say something when they see something unsafe? EHS Daily Advisor, July Issue. Retrieved on April 17, 2018 from dont-workers-say-something-see-something-unsafe/ Tavenner, J. (2007, November 30). Become a safety leader. EHS Today, November Issue. Retrieved on April 17, 2018, from Tucker, S., & Turner, N. (2013). Waiting for safety: Responses by young Canadian workers to unsafe work. Journal of safety research, 45, 103-110.

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