Rock Products

APR 2019

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Page 22 of 79 ROCK products • April 2019 • 21 2019, especially in and near metropolitan areas. Industrial Sand and Gravel In 2018, industrial sand and gravel production was 120 mil- lion tons, valued at about $6.2 billion, produced by about 191 companies from 321 operations in 35 states. The value of production of industrial sand and gravel in 2018 increased by 22 percent compared with that of the previous year, and by 130 percent compared with 2016, owing pri- marily to increased demand for hydraulic-fracturing sand for the oil and gas sector. Leading states were Wisconsin, Texas, Illinois, Missouri, Minnesota, Oklahoma, North Carolina, Mis- sissippi, Iowa and Arkansas, in order of tonnage produced. Combined production from these states accounted for 87 percent of the domestic total. About 73 percent of the U.S. tonnage was used as hydrau- lic-fracturing sand and well-packing and cementing sand; as glassmaking sand and other whole-grain silica, 7 percent each; as foundry sand, 4 percent; as other ground silica, and whole- grain fillers and building products, 2 percent each; as ground and unground sand for chemicals, filtration sand, and recre- ational sand, 1 percent each; and for other uses, 2 percent. Cement Production of portland cement in 2018 in the United States increased slightly to about 85.4 million tons, and output of masonry cement continued to be stagnant at 2.4 million tons. Cement was produced at 98 plants in 34 states, and at two plants in Puerto Rico. Overall U.S. cement production continued to be well below the record level of 99 million tons reported in 2005, indicating continued full-time idle status at a few plants, underutilized capacity at many others, production disruptions from plant upgrades, plant closures over the interim, and rela- tively inexpensive imports in some recent years. Sales of cement increased by nearly 3 percent in 2018. Over- all, shipments were 27.8 million tons lower than the record volume set in 2005. The overall value of shipments was nearly $12.7 billion. Most of the sales of cement were to make concrete, worth at least $66 billion. In recent years, about 70 to 75 percent of cement sales have been to ready-mixed concrete producers, 8 to 10 percent to contractors (mainly road paving; much contractor work also involves ready-mixed concrete), about 10 percent to concrete product manufacturers, and 7 to 10 percent to other cus- tomer types. Texas, California, Missouri, Florida and Alabama were, in descending order of production, the five-leading cement-producing states and accounted for nearly 50 per- cent of U.S. production. Lime In 2018, an estimated 19 million tons of quicklime and hydrate was produced (excluding independent commercial hydrators), valued at about $2.4 billion. At yearend, 29 com- panies were producing lime, which included 18 companies with commercial sales and 10 companies that produced lime strictly for internal use (for example, sugar companies). These companies had 74 primary lime plants (plants operat- ing quicklime kilns) in 28 states and Puerto Rico. Six of these 29 companies operated only hydrating plants in 11 states. In 2018, the five-leading U.S. lime companies produced quick- lime or hydrate in 20 states and accounted for 79 percent of U.S. lime production. Principal producing states were, in alphabeti- cal order, Alabama, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio and Texas. Major markets for lime were, in descending order of con- sumption, steelmaking, chemical and industrial applications (such as the manufacture of fertilizer, glass, paper and pulp, and precipitated calcium carbonate, and in sugar refining), flue gas treatment, construction, water treatment, and non- ferrous mining. Gypsum In 2018, domestic production of crude gypsum was estimated to be 21 million tons with a value of about $168 million. The leading crude gypsum-producing states were Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Nevada, Oklahoma and Texas, which together accounted for an estimated 67 percent of total output. Overall, 47 companies produced or processed gypsum in the United States at 50 mines in 16 States. The majority of domestic consumption, which totaled approximately 48 mil- lion tons, was used by agriculture, cement production, and manufacturers of wallboard and plaster products. Small quantities of high-purity gypsum, used in a wide range of industrial processes, accounted for the remaining tonnage. At the beginning of 2018, the production capacity of oper- ating wallboard plants in the United States was about 33.4 billion sq. ft. per year. Total wallboard sales were estimated to be 25.5 billion sq. ft. Source: 2019 USGS Mineral Commodity Summaries. Rock Products Market Composite 2017 2.448 Billion Tons Produced 2018 2.616 Billion Tons Produced

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