Rock Products

AUG 2019

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Page 54 of 159 ROCK products • August 2019 • 53 Aggregates Industry Almanac Aggregates Production was 120 million tons, valued at about $6.2 billion, produced by about 191 companies from 321 operations in 35 states. The value of production of industrial sand and gravel in 2018 increased by 22% compared with that of the previous year, and by 130% compared with 2016, owing primarily to increased demand for hydraulic-fracturing sand for the oil and gas sector. Leading states were Wisconsin, Texas, Illinois, Missouri, Minnesota, Oklahoma, North Carolina, Mis- sissippi, Iowa and Arkansas, in order of tonnage produced. Combined production from these states accounted for 87% of the domestic total. About 73% of the U.S. tonnage was used as hydraulic-frac- turing sand and well-packing and cementing sand; as glassmaking sand and other whole-grain silica, 7% each; as foundry sand, 4%; as other ground silica, and whole-grain fill- ers and building products, 2% each; as ground and unground sand for chemicals, filtration sand, and recreational sand, 1% each; and for other uses, 2%. Cement – Production of portland cement in 2018 in the United States increased slightly to about 85.4 million tons, and output of masonry cement continued to be stagnant at 2.4 million tons. Cement was produced at 98 plants in 34 states, and at two plants in Puerto Rico. Overall U.S. cement production continued to be well below the record level of 99 million tons reported in 2005, indicating continued full-time idle status at a few plants, underutilized capacity at many others, production disruptions from plant upgrades, plant closures over the interim, and relatively inexpensive imports in some recent years. Sales of cement increased by nearly 3% in 2018. Overall, ship- ments were 27.8 million tons lower than the record volume set in 2005. The overall value of shipments was nearly $12.7 billion. Most of the sales of cement were to make concrete, worth at least $66 billion. In recent years, about 70 to 75% of cement sales have been to ready-mixed concrete producers, 8 to 10% to contractors (mainly road paving; much contractor work also involves ready-mixed concrete), about 10% to concrete product manufacturers, and 7 to 10% to other customer types. Texas, California, Missouri, Florida and Alabama were, in descend- ing order of production, the five leading cement-producing states and accounted for nearly 50% of U.S. production. Lime – In 2018, an estimated 19 million tons of quicklime and hydrate was produced (excluding independent commer- cial hydrators), valued at about $2.4 billion. At year-end, 29 companies were producing lime, which included 18 compa- nies with commercial sales and 10 companies that produced lime strictly for internal use (for example, sugar companies). These companies had 74 primary lime plants (plants operat- ing quicklime kilns) in 28 states and Puerto Rico. Six of these 29 companies operated only hydrating plants in 11 states. In 2018, the five leading U.S. lime companies produced quicklime or hydrate in 20 states and accounted for 79% of U.S. lime production. Principal producing states were, in

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