Rock Products

JUL 2015

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Page 30 of 55 ROCK products • July 2015 • 29 about even more rapid change. At his Edison Portland Ce- ment Works in New Village, N.J., extra-long kilns were intro- duced, measuring 8 x 150 ft. They were also the first kilns to have lining between the firebrick lining and the shell, made up of layers of ½-in.-thick sheet asbestos. In April 1904, the World's Fair opened in St. Louis, and the show brought new ideas to producers from across the coun- try. Rock Products ran a series of articles for the following year about the developments that debuted at the show. In that same year, the Sturtevant Mill Co. introduced the Open Door Rotary Fine Crusher, with a wide-swinging door to make maintaining and cleaning parts easier. The world's first bucket dredger made of iron was introduced by O&K. One of the largest quarries in the world, Cleveland Stone Co.'s South Amherst, Ohio, works, installed one of the larg- est compressed-air plants marking a distinct step in quarry working on a large scale. The discovery of a large strip of oolitic limestone in Indiana let to a boom in production there. One of the largest, Bedford Quarries, was the first ever to try hydraulic stripping and scabbling machines. Throughout 1905, Rock Products ran a series of profiles on plants producing oolitic limestone and, consequently, coverage of the monument industry grew. Transportation At the beginning of 1907, Defebaugh stated that, "the trans- portation problem is the only problem of serious importance to the commercial interest of the country at this time." Rail- road development (or lack thereof ), streets and sidewalks were most frequently discussed, and railroad car shortages in 1908 hampered the industry in two ways, by both slowing transport of goods and reducing the amount of railroad bal- last purchased. Proposed tariff hikes by railroad lines of be- tween 20 percent and 25 percent were protested in Chicago. The growth of concrete sidewalk paving had led to increased interest in road paving. One city engineer suggested, "paving one of our narrow streets with an all-concrete driveway as an experiment, as I have no doubt a street of this kind prop- erly laid would prove a success and would be cheaper than brick." In reply, Defebaugh optimistically told readers: "the time will come when the concrete roadway will be accepted as a fact and no longer an experiment." Not long after this exchange in Rock Products came the an- nouncement of a contract in Worcester, Mass., to build a 60- mile stretch of road on Long Island for the Vanderbilt cup races. At the time it was the largest paving contract ever let, and was expected to cost millions of dollars and employ 2,000 workers throughout an entire summer. The cement industry benefitted from a number of time-sav- ing inventions during this period. Concrete mixing methods changed rapidly between 1905 and 1910: at the first cement users convention, no mixing machines had been displayed, and most concrete mixing was done strictly by hand. But at the 6 th annual convention many types of concrete mixing machines were displayed. Bagging standards in the cement industry continued to improve. But in 1906, a bagging machine was introduced that auto- matically filled, weighed and tied the bags at a rate of 100 tph; the operator only had to hang the bags on the mouths of filling tubes. In 1907, the Bates Valve Bag (made of paper) was perfected; its use allowed 20 cement bags-per-minute to be filled, weighed and tied. Crusher Development Crusher development was also prevalent in this era. Plans to build the largest rock crushing plant in the world, the Finck Farm operation in New York, included a crusher weighing 200,000 lb. to produce 700 tph. The largest gyratory crusher of its time was built in 1906, a No. 9 with a receiving opening of about 20 in. Soon after another gyratory crusher with a feed opening of 16 in. was introduced, its creator had no idea what to charge for it, so he sold it for a specific price per pound. Universal introduced the overhead eccentric jaw crusher in 1906, and in 1910 Rock Products featured the Symons disc crusher, intended for crushing rejections coming from prod- uct of large gyratory breakers or for pulverizing the small boulders that were rejected from the screens from sand washing and separating plants. And it was in these very early years of the 20 th century that portable crushing plants came into use. They were described as, "a machine, or rather a combination machine, mounted upon wheels and made in several sizes, varying in capacity from 8 to 20 tph." A few other major equipment developments occurred be- tween 1906 and 1910.

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